Gram Zdrowia


Physiology of digestion


Eating food, usually does not reflect on the composition and quality and that its individual components can positively or negatively affect our health. After its ingestion, and satisfy hunger, did not think about it, as digestion takes place inside us, because why, if this is done automatically, without our active participation in this. The fact that the internal organs are malfunctioning reminds us of just nagging pain, symptoms of indigestion, diseases of the digestive organs. Unpleasant symptoms associated with digestion time urging us to pay closer attention to what we eat. The ordinary man sees no difference between the words - food and nourish-no. Food is therefore a process of mechanical grinding and swallowing food, and nutrition - a conscious choice of food, which optimally satisfies all the necessary nutrition and energy of our body. Knowing how to eat and what to eat, to avoid many diseases and the associated suffering.


Regulation of appetite and digestion

Feeling hungry and searching for food is one of the most basic human instincts. Its adjustment is controlled automatically by the central nervous system (brain), a feedback between the feeling of hunger and satiety. The first signs of the desire to eat reach the brain at the sight and smell of view of food. Collected information on the state of the energy of the body, the nerve endings in the tongue, intestines and digestive organs, migrate in the form of pulses of peripheral nerve fibers to the brain, which analyzes the data collected. In the case of satiety centers and the cerebral cortex exert inhibitory effects on hunger center located in the hypothalamus and, conversely, stimulates the appetite center of intensifying the desire to get food. The feeling of satiety, not only to the general nutritional status of the organism, but also depends on genetic factors, occupational, cultural and environmental. Hunger can appear automatically in conjunction with the upcoming season of food, and its severity is associated with 10-15% decrease in blood glucose (sugar) in blood and short-lasting reduction in insulin levels. On the result of a reduction in blood glucose levels, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, glucagon breaks down glycogen stored in the liver and muscles into glucose, as the basic material from which the organism obtains energy. Amount of glycogen reserves are small and after using the system goes back to the store of fat stored in adipose tissue. In the process of acquiring energy is also involved the liver, which breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The initial rapid rate of their decomposition into simpler compounds is slowed down, which stimulates the body to search for and retrieve food. The process of obtaining energy from glycogen and fatty compounds takes place only in the case of insatiable hunger. With the collection of food, these processes are broken and as a result absorb adequate nutrients lost fat and glycogen stores are replenished.

While physiological functions related to food intake, nerve impulses are transmitted regulations from the brain to the internal digestive organs and intestines of the peripheral nervous system of an autonomous - the sympathetic and przywspółczulny, who serves as coordinator of the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients. This information, mobilize secretory cells located in the gastrointestinal mucosa to secrete the protein hormones, whose function is to stimulate the secretion of the corresponding organs of digestive enzymes.


Regulation of food intake

Eating too much food in relation to needs increases the activity of the thyroid gland, which in turn activates an increase lipolysis (breakdown of fat into free fatty acids) as a self-defense mechanism of the body. Enhances the combustion process by the body fats. Energy from fat produces toxic ketones. As a result of intense fat burning occurs, paradoxically, to weight loss. With persistence of this situation occurs, however, increased lipogenesis in the end - the production of body fat, causing it to re-stored (for a link in an optimal diet.)

Foods that do not cover the energy expenditure and enhances lipolysis reduces lipogenesis as the primitive human body with hunger and loss of energy. Consequently induces an increase in stored fat. Every so drastic reduction ration, a process opposite to that expected - excessive accumulation of fat in its warehouses. After describing the mechanism of these phenomena will certainly give you a clearer instance of weight loss during the consumption of excess fat and yo - yo when trying to lose weight. From the observations made by scientists that the stressful situations that cause feelings of fear, nervousness, depressed mood reactions cause decreased appetite, although in some cases, the reverse reaction may occur - increased appetite. Breaking the regulatory mechanisms of satiety, resulting in a further desire to eat, can occur at the level of the cerebral cortex, where psychological factors, cultural and emotional states overcome the alarm signals satiety reaching the hypothalamus. Those factors include:

  • snacking habit during the day and "night eating"
  • eating too much food as a response to anger, fear and sadness
  • treatment for eating as a habit and tradition,
  • self-indulgence and the senses
  • consuming excessive amounts of food during the recon-walescencji,
  • feelings are not controllable seizures, appetite wolf "
  • consumption of carbohydrates with high glycemic index.



The nutrients supplied with food consists of three groups of organic compounds - proteins carbohydrates and fats. Any food that contains a welcome one, two or three of these components. From their numerical strength and the relative proportions depend on the quality of foods consumed. The relevant sections of the gastrointestinal tract is part of individual organic substances which are decomposed to simple chemical compounds, providing political system energy required for life.


Principles of good nutrition

I am not an advocate of a healthy person in a specific diet, but an appropriate diet. Proper nutrition should include the consumption of essential nutrients in relation to each other in certain proportions. It is called a balanced diet.

I think that the use of a particular type of diet should be reserved for the sick and have a diet drug. I believe that every person on account of their individual biochemical characteristics should be used optimally balanced diet tailored to your needs. You can also follow the general principles of proper diet and nutrients combine to put below.

  1. Do not drink fluids before a meal, during and immediately after ingestion. Fluids dilute the gastric juices.
  2. Food should be thoroughly chewed and not to hurry with his swallowing. The enzymes in saliva begin digestion of carbohydrates.
  3. Do not combine proteins and carbohydrates in one meal, except for vegetables with low glycemic index.
  4. Proteins can be combined with vegetables and salads with cooked vegetables, except potatoes, carrots and red beet.
  5. Starchy carbohydrates should also be combined with vegetables preferably raw and boiled.
  6. Fats are used in a versatile and can combine them with any type of food.
  7. Eliminate sugar from your diet, its products and sweetened drinks.
  8. Reduce intake of complex carbohydrates in the form of starchy foods - white bread from refined flour, white pasta, etc. Do not eat bread, which uses baking preservatives, yeast, emulsifiers, adjuvants and dyes.
  9. Limit the amount of solid fats (animal) into the dietary fatty acids eat olive oil extra virgin cold, flaxseed oil and fish oil.
  10. Do not eat highly processed food products, namely milk and milk products purchased in a store, margarine, hamburgers, sausages, etc. of high
  11. You should eat natural foods - whole grains with flour, raw and cooked vegetables, eggs from farms, meat, raw milk and fermented products, fruit and drink a good water filter or reverse osmosis niskomineralizowaną.
  12. Need to allocate sufficient time for outdoor activities and recreation.



Digestion is a complex process, mechanical, chemical and enzymatic degradation of macromolecular organic compounds - proteins, fats and carbohydrates to simpler substances, in order to absorb and assimilate by the body. Mechanical operations involving the gastrointestinal tract of food crushing, chewing, swallowing, peristaltic movements of intestines-friendly moving and the expulsion of intestinal contents on the outside, are closely coordinated during the process of secretion of digestive enzymes by the internal digestive organs. Secreted by the enzymes in sufficient quantity and proportion in relation to the composition of the digested food to allow a proper digestion of gastric contents and prepare it for absorption by the intestine.



In humans, digestion begins in the time-karmu download in the mouth. On the road neurogenic, due to irritation of receptors in the brain, sense of smell, taste and feel, is increased amount of saliva by the parotid, sub-mandibular and sublingual. Stimulating the parasympathetic system causes watery salivation and sympathetic - increased secretion of thick and sticky saliva. Production of saliva is constantly and has increased during eating. Person per day emits about 1.5 liters of saliva. It is composed of 99% water and about 0.5% solids - sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, protein, urea, uric acid and creatinine. Saliva serves many useful functions - maintain adequate moisture in the mouth, softens the food and makes it easier to swallow, combat pathogenic microbes by preventing them from entering the throat and downstream sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Contained in the saliva of a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase begins the initial digestion of carbohydrates contained in food. The food is chopped by the teeth and tongue, mixed with saliva and chewed. On the surface of the tongue are papillae, and their taste buds containing taste receptors sweet, bitter and salty. Chewing food takes so long until it will be crumbled, crushed, mixed with saliva and formed into a bite of food. Formed a portion of food passes from the fauces to the pharynx, and this phase of swallowing is dependent on our will. With the entry of food into the oral pharynx contraction of the muscles that move the larynx upwards, preventing the entry of food into the respiratory tract. Transition mouthful of food into the esophagus followed by reflex, and involves the movement with a strong rhythmic wave, known as peristaltic. Thanks to her food is pushed lower and lower and finally injected into the stomach. The speed it moves through the esophagus depends on the consistency of the billet as well depends on the position of the body where it is swallowed. Liquid food enters the stomach in a few seconds, and the hard bite goes longer - about 60 seconds. Circular muscular valve located on the border of the esophagus and the stomach called a groove, opens to the time of passage of food and closes again after its entry. A barrier protecting the esophagus from regurgitation and secondary effects on the wall of the acidic gastric juice.



Human stomach is elongated and highly muscular digestive organ situated under the left costal arch. Connects to the final section of the esophagus through the sphincter of the esophagus - and the initial section of the groove of the small intestine (duodenum) by a ring of muscle called odźwiernikiem. It is the broadest segment of the gastrointestinal tract.

The mucosa is the inner part of the stomach, the entire surface is undulating and covered with a thin layer of mucus that separates the epithelium from the highly acidic stomach and gastric acid pickling protein. Mucus has properties, which neutralize the corrosive effects of hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes and its production is greater the more these substances irritate the stomach wall. The stomach is lined with a characteristic pattern of the mucous membranes, which are polygonal haughtiness 1-6 mm in diameter, called. Field stomach. They cover the surface of the folds of the villi which are the smallest structure of the mucous membrane, which allow significantly increase the active surface of the stomach wall.

In each kosmku there are many secretory cells, called secretory glands, which under the influence of mechanical stimulus-tion liberated by the ingesta emit light stomach daily 1.5 - 2.5 liters of acidic digestive juice pH 1.5. Gastric juice is 0.4 - 0.5% aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes, and is composed of the mineral salts containing sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonates, sulfates and organic substances - enzymes, mucus, and the so-called factor procedure, is necessary for proper absorption of vitamin B12 deficiency is a cause of anemia (formerly known as pernicious anemia), and blood group substances. Hydrochloric acid in normal conditions is steady and, depending on the type of food consumed by changing only its quantity. Also exerts an antiseptic antimicrobial przedostającym up with food to the stomach, protects some of the vitamins that you can easily lose their activity in an alkaline medium, facilitates the absorption of iron and calcium, is involved in regulating the opening and closing of the pyloric stomach. Duration of food digestion in the stomach can be divided into phases follows:

  • starvation - if by reflex neurogenic comes to pre-release of digestive juices under the influence of view, the smell of food and imagination. The most important role in this phase of the vagus nerve autonomic nervous system, which transfers the taste and olfactory stimuli directly to the secretory glands of the stomach,
  • stomach - when there is food in the stomach, mucosal folds extend the influence of mechanical irritation of the walls of ingesta. Under the influence of gastrin hormone produced by specialized cells of the intestinal wall, there is a pre-acid secretion into the lumen of the stomach, which activates the enzyme inactive pepsynogen in its active form - pepsin and creates an acidic environment necessary for the digestion of proteins by this enzyme. Hydrochloric acid causes swelling of the protein of connective tissue - collagen, which results in digestive enzymes to reach the digested meat. Pepsin digests all kinds of proteins with the exception of protamine and creatine and decomposes them into more elementary compounds such as peptides. Hydrochloric acid coagulates the milk protein, so that the enzyme rennet casein has the capacity to digest. Gastric lipase initiates the digestion of fats, but only emulsified, for example, of milk origin.
  • Intestinal - ending digestion in the stomach when the food reaches the duodenum through the sphincter muscle - the pylorus, which acts as a valve which opens only during the transition of food.

Small intestine

The small intestine is 3 - 4 meter section of the gastrointestinal tract serving digestion and absorption of nutrients in the form of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. Divided into three functionally distinct parts - the duodenum, jejunum and winding. The length of the small intestine varies between individuals depending on age, state of the mucous membrane voltage and is about 5 - 6 m. light colon narrows gradually from the stomach to the colon valve from 4.5 to 2.5 - 3 cm.

Duodenum is the initial segment of small intestine length score from 1925 to 1930 cm. In the central part of the mucosa and creates arrogance leads to it are considered guiding the pancreatic juice from the pancreas and common bile duct drain bile from the liver and gallbladder. The interior of this part of the intestine is highly folded and thanks so. kosmkom intestinal surface digestion and absorption is increased several hundred times. Bowel wall is richly vascularised, which allows the absorption of all nutrients. Transit time of ingesta through the small intestine is about 4 - 5 hours. Ingesta from the stomach is transferred in batches to the duodenum, and there is neutralized by the pancreatic juice-judicial. Digestive enzymes are also produced in the cells of the small intestine - enterocytes.

Duodenum passes in subsequent episodes - jejunum and winding. Both parts are not clearly demarcated from each other and share many common features. It is assumed that 2 / 5 the upper part of the small intestine is the jejunum, and ileum remaining. The mucosa of both sections of the gut is similarly constructed as the duodenum - undulating and well supplied with blood. Jejunum performs two types of motion - pendulum or a jibe, which are used for mixing nutrients and peristalsis peristaltic move in the direction of the contents of the colon. On the movements and secretion of the digestive tract has a substantial outflow of the autonomous (vegetative) nervous system. These activities stimulates the parasympathetic part of the system, and inhibits the sympathetic part.

The secretion of digestive juices by the digestive organs are also affected by significant hormone secreted by glands lining the duodenum and small intestine under the influence of acidic gastric contents. Secretin is a hormone that influences the secretion of pancreatic juice by the pancreas. Cholecystokinin stimulates the liver to produce and secrete bile and the pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice - pancreatic amylase, chymotrypsin, trypsin and lipase. In the small intestine, especially in the duodenum is essential digestive reflux.


Digestion of fats

The largest and most complex organ in the digestive tract and entire body is the liver. Recalls huge chemical laboratory, which is constantly ongoing processes of synthesis and degradation. Highly specialized liver cells play an essential role in metabolism, so they are responsible for providing energy for all vital functions of the body.

This organ is tucked under the right costal arch and the top covered with a diaphragm. Filled with the blood of the liver in an adult male weighs 2100 - 2300 g in women is about 200 grams lighter. The liver is divided into several sections called lobes: the left and right and two smaller ones - trapezius and tailed. The right lobe is the largest and represents over 2 / 3 the weight of the organ. In the depths of the liver lobes fuse together. At the bottom of the borderlands liver lobe of the right and the left is a niche of the liver, containing numerous vessels, bile ducts and nerves. The main task of the liver is filtering the blood, so that purifies the blood of toxins and transforms nutrients supplied the energy needed to ensure that all vital functions of the body. Blood to the liver is supplied in two ways. The first - the liver portal vein blood flows devoid of oxygen from the spleen, stomach and intestines. It is rich in nutrients and minerals that the liver captures and processes. The second - the hepatic artery brings blood rich in oxygen.


Liver function:

  1. converts carbohydrates into easily digestible for the organism glucose, and its excess stored in the form of gli-kogenu,
  2. synthesizes cholesterol and fatty acids, which are stored in adipose tissue,
  3. breaks down proteins into amino acids used to build a re-O proteins specific for the organism,
  4. produced and stored some of the serum proteins such as albumin, and certain blood clotting factors,
  5. generates and stores enzymes such as heparin,
  6. inventory reserve is a significant amount of blood that is timely, for example, when bleeding may be released into the bloodstream,
  7. in fetal life acts as a hematopoietic organ, fulfilling the task, which then takes over the bone marrow,
  8. inactivates the hormones, which would otherwise continually stimulate different organs,
  9. produces bile and recycles used bile salts,
  10. neutralizes toxins (eg alcohol and other drugs), toxic ammonia is converted to urea cycle ornitynowym,
  11. participates in the mechanisms of defense system - captured celebrates, breaks down and inactivates waste products, which are then transmitted in the form of a neutralized-to company for blood and excreted by the kidneys,
  12. stores of vitamin A, D, B12, and some important elements such as iron necessary for the proper functioning of or-ganizmu. Internal stores of vitamin A are sufficient for about two years, and vitamins D and B12 for a period of one year.
  13. is involved in thermoregulation, produces heat - the blood flows from the liver warmer by 1 ° C.


Candidates for reuse by the body are retained, and excreted unnecessary. Bile is secreted by the liver in an amount of about 0.8 - 1.5 liters per day. Flows from the liver bile ducts alveolar duct to the gall bladder, which acts as a storage of bile. The length of the gallbladder is 12 - 18 cm, and its volume is approximately 60 ml. Stimulus stimulates gallbladder emptying is a food rich in fats. During the digestion of bladder wall shrinks, the sphincter opens the common bile duct and bile at high pressure is forced into the duodenum. Bile, which flows directly from the liver is rare and quite clear, and that which enters the gall bladder, is dwudziestokrotnemu density and is dark yellow. Bile increases intestinal peristaltic movements, moving the contents of digestive speech in the direction of the colon. Although it contains salts, pH is slightly alkaline which helps neutralize stomach acid reflux, splashed into the duodenum.

The decisive phase of fat digestion begins in the duodenum. Excreted in bile into the duodenum is not an enzyme, but fully contributes emulsifying (breaking it into microscopic droplets) fats and can be properly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, with three types of bile acids - cholowemu, chenodeoksycholowemu and deoksycholowemu. Salts of these acids make the fat more susceptible to the action of pancreatic enzymes digesting fats. The interior of the duodenum is secreted pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest fats, among others - and kolipazę lipase, phospholipase and esterase. As a result of digestion of fats are formed free fatty acids and monoglycerides, which are formed into tiny particles called micellami. In this form they are transported to the brush border - bulges of the cell membrane of enterocytes (cells lining the inside surfaces of the gut) and so forth digested. The cells are enterocytes enzymes rozczepiające fats into fatty acids and cholesterol to glycerides.

Another component of the biliary bile pigments are suitable for its golden color, and among these the most important is bilirubin, which is formed by the decomposition of hemoglobin - the blood pigment. The bile cholesterol is also in free form and in combination with other compounds. If the bile is saturated with too much cholesterol, it creates the conditions conducive to the formation of gallstones. Thus, elevated blood cholesterol and gallstones often go together hand in hand.


Digestion of proteins

The second-largest liver, digestive gland is the pancreas. Emits a day about 4 liters of juice and is a true plant enzymes digesting proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

The pancreas consists of a head covered by a loop of the duodenum, the neck and tail. It is located on the left upper abdomen, behind the stomach and close to the duodenum. Pancreatic parenchyma is divided into smaller units - the blisters, which secrete digestive enzymes. Between them they are so scattered. pancreatic islands (Largenhansa), and their number is estimated at 1 - 3 million and constitute only about 2% of the total weight of this organ. Cells were included in the pancreatic islets produce hormones: cell? - Insulin-cell? - Glucagon, somatostatin other - an antagonist of growth hormone, secreted directly into the blood. The pancreas gland secretion is therefore external and internal. Enzymes are synthesized inside the cells of pancreatic and there stored in the form of so-called. grain surrounded by a membrane. To prevent the interior processes samotrawienia pancreatic proteolytic enzymes (protein digesting) are produced and stored in an inactive form, called. proenzymów. Another safeguard against samostrawieniem the pancreas by trypsin protein is produced in the cells of trypsin inhibitor, which inactivates appearing intracellularly active form of the enzyme. Secreted by the pancreas, pancreatic juice collected in the two wires leads. The first of these is considered together with duct common bile duct into the duodenum, and an additional cable for less duodenal papilla. Activation of digestive enzymes proenzymów and takes place only when they are in the light of the duodenum.

Intensive digestion and absorption of proteins distributed in the stomach to form a peptide made in the duodenum, and the process ends, in principle, already in the initial segment of the jejunum. Are involved pancreatic enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, karbopeptydaza A and B are the most rapidly digested and absorbed protein amino acids in milk and egg. A healthy person can absorb in 1 hour up to 350 g of protein. When all proteins are digested and broken down to peptides and then into amino acids, followed by their absorption into the blood of portal vein, which enters the liver. In the liver, there is further degradation and metabolism of amino acids, so that they can be used by the human body. In the liver cells is devoid of excess amino acids amino residues, which are formed: ammonia and ketoacids. Ammonia is converted by the liver cells in a much less toxic urea, which the blood goes to the kidneys. The keto acids can be used to synthesize sugars and other amino acids.


Carbohydrate digestion

The process of digestion of carbohydrates (sugars) begins in the mouth during chewing of food as a result of salivary amylase enzymes (ptialiny) secreted by the salivary glands. After reaching the reflux of gastric digestion of complex sugars and is temporarily disabled. Further digestion takes place in the duodenum, where the carbohydrates are exposed to the alkaline pancreatic enzyme alpha-amylase, which breaks them into disaccharides (disaccharides) - lactose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose. Next in the small intestine, disaccharides are broken down enzymatically by enzymes - disacharadyzy into simple sugars: glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, and others. Then sugars pass into the blood and get into her liver. In the liver, transforming oligosacharadyzy - lactase, maltazę and sucrose into glucose, which is referred to as the blood vessels are distributed to all body cells and used as a source of energy, or converted into glycogen, which accumulates in the liver, acting in a reserve capable of being fully exploited as an energy source life. When there is a shortage of glucose in the blood, liver, immediately gives the required number of glycogen, converting it back into glucose.


Large intestine

The last section of the gastrointestinal tract is the intestine, called the purse. Is wider than the small intestine and reaches a state of diastole diameter from 5 to 8 centimeters. It is also much shorter, since its length is from 120 to 150 centimeters. The walls of the colon is rippled, the visibility on the outside are called wypukleniami and pouches of the intestine folds półksiężycowatymi.

Colon begins in the right hip from the bottom of the ileocecal valve, which is the boundary of the small intestine. Part of ascending runs on the right side of the abdominal cavity and extends from the cecum up to bend the right colon (near the liver), where it passes in the transverse colon.

In the remainder of the stomach transversely to the other side of the body where folds at the height of the spleen and descending colon goes into, running on the left side of the abdomen.

Before you reach the colon rectum, heaves a double loop horizontally arranged in the shape of the letter S, called the sigmoid purse and Spatial terms in the rectum with the anal canal ending at the anal sphincter.

Peristaltic movements of the drives are similar to those that occur in the small intestine. In the ascending colon movements take place mixing of content that does not already exist in other parts of the colon. Apart from them a few times during the day, there are also sudden and large movements by which the colon in passing stool can be emptied immediately.

The large intestine produces no digestive enzymes, but plays an important role in the process of digestion. Its basic function is to create a stool. During the process of compaction, with 2,000 g of fecal slurry absorbs 95% water and mineral salts, leaving 200 - 300 g of faeces. Elimination of stool formed on the outside is called defecation. Time to move the contents of fecal colon is 12 - 18 hours. A stool constipation is when the faecal matter will stop and no stool during 1924 to 1932 hours.

Digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract requires the presence of water along with dissolved minerals in it agreed with the food and digestive juices. To light the large intestine gets about half a liter of fluid per day. Reabsorption and recovery of minerals occurs mainly in the colon ascending in presence of water, so 90% of their weight back again into the bloodstream. Water absorption is a passive process. Accompanied by active absorption of sodium excretion of potassium ions into the lumen of the intestine, whose contents in faeces is higher than in serum.

The condition of the colon and the composition of its flora depends largely on our daily diet. Under the influence of the intestinal bacterial flora, followed by further degradation of the nutrients are not digested and absorbed in the small intestine. Suitable composition of intestinal microflora is an essential factor for optimal intestinal and creates conditions for the proper functioning of the immune system cells, located within the intestinal wall. The principal function of the bacterial flora that lives in the large intestine is the fermentation of fiber, which is not consumed by the small intestine.

Friendly bacteria produce our health from the fiber of vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, C, biotin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and folic, hormones, amino acids, the molecules of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids - acetic acid, and the vertical pro- butyrynowy. The latter provides energy for cells lining the colon, improves absorption of minerals and has a positive effect on the metabolism of fats (lipids) and blood glucose in the liver. Other bacteria break down food residues as well as digestive enzymes, produce acetylcholine (neurohormone involved in the transmission of nerve impulses) and facilitate the absorption of iron.

That lives in the gut microflora protects against invasive bacterial infections. Defense mechanism of this action is based on the competition between useful and harmful bacteria for nutrients. Epithelial cells of intestinal bacteria protected by the beneficial effect to our health, form a protective barrier that prevents penetration into the bloodstream of harmful substances. Adhering to the epithelium of the intestine, preventing the proliferation of pathogenic microbes and their penetration of the intestinal wall.

Produced by lactic acid from glucose changes to the acidic pH of the intestines, creating an acidic environment hostile to pathogenic bacteria and fungi, which constantly compete for food and living space.

Bacteria colonizing the gut have a favorable influence on the general metabolism of fatty compounds, carbohydrates and proteins by lowering serum cholesterol, especially bad LDL cholesterol. Relieve the liver in the detoxification process, by neutralizing harmful waste substances, thereby preventing them from entering the bloodstream.

Bacteria also help remove heavy metals from the body. Chemical substances produced by friendly bacteria facilitate the digestion of nutrients, thus increasing their absorption through the gut. Alleviate symptoms resulting from intolerance to lactose (milk sugar), improve peristalsis.

Components of the gut microflora is constantly stimulate the immune system, thus keeping it on standby. In addition, secrete substances that reduce the activity of enzymes to accelerate the development of cancer cells. Beneficial bacteria can also inactivate toxins produced by certain pathogenic microorganisms.

Image of a well functioning colon is excreted stool appearance. Stool should be cleared regularly, and nearly incorrectly functioning colon should expel him after 1 - 2 hours after a meal. We know that in practice is different and the frequency of bowel movements as a standard be adopted in one or two per day. Faeces in its consistency should be uniform, without clear and should not smell dirty toilet bowl. Defecation should come quickly and effortlessly.

Physiology of digestion

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